On Wednesday, March 29 a standing room-only crowd attended the premiere of a new documentary, produced by Society board member Alex Horowitz, about the life of Marione Ingram. The video includes footage from an oral history conducted by our staff in 2016.
At the program, Marione spoke about her experiences as a Holocaust survivor and civil rights activist in conversation with Dr. Lauren B. Strauss, Scholar in Residence at American University and former Executive Director of the Foundation for Jewish Studies.
We plan to share stories of activism like Marione's at our new museum.
Missed the program? Watch the short documentary now!
Special thanks to the Foundation for Jewish Studies and our hosts at the Tenley-Friendship Library for partnering with us on this public program.
As part of my internship at JHSGW, I helped with research for the creation of the core exhibition for the Society’s future museum with our curator, Christiane. With Christiane’s guidance, I conducted research that both helps the society and interests me -- on women in Washington, D.C. who contributed to the civil rights movement. The American civil rights movement received support from diverse communities and individuals across the country. Washington, D.C. played an important role in the movement as a border between North and South and as the nation’s capital. Jewish women participated in this movement in various ways. Here, I highlight three of the women I have come across in my research to provide a glimpse at the different population of Jewish women in the civil rights movement.
Marione Ingram (b. 1935) is a Holocaust survivor from Hamburg who immigrated to New York City in 1952. In 1960, she moved to D.C., where she observed the racist policies in place in the American South. She identified with these struggles, particularly the education system’s poor treatment of African Americans, which she compared to the discrimination she faced as a Jewish survivor in German schools after the war. Ingram became involved in Washington’s civil rights movement through the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). This led her to volunteer at the March on Washington and eventually join the Freedom Summer project in Mississippi in 1964. By establishing a Freedom School for black students, teaching classes focused on passing literacy tests, and providing transportation for voters, she fought voter discrimination. She eventually faced legal trouble when she was falsely charged with a variety of minor offenses in a police attempt to quell her activism. Following this, Marione Ingram returned to the capital where her activism for local and national issues has never stopped. She has been fighting for D.C. Home Rule, campaigning for Barack Obama, and protesting against gun violence. Her devotion to civil rights is strongly tied to her experiences of exclusion, discrimination, and persecution in Nazi and post-war Germany. Marione Ingram once stated, “My first journey to Mississippi began in Hamburg, where my father…instilled in me the idea that because I survived the Nazi era, it was my sacred duty to oppose racism wherever I encountered it.”
Bella Abzug (1920-1998) was a congresswoman from New York from 1971 to 1977, fighting for many causes, including civil rights, women’s rights, and gay rights. Bella Abzug was known as a defender of civil rights before her tenure in the United States Congress due to her legal defense of Willie McGee in the 1940s and 1950s. McGee was a black man falsely accused of raping a white woman in Mississippi, and the case exposed Abzug to the role of racism in the Deep South. She received death threats and observed the degree of violence and discrimination to which African Americans were subjected. These experiences strengthened her commitment to civil rights, a cause she took with her to Washington two decades later. She was one of few women in the U.S. House of Representatives, and “established a standard of integrity and chutzpah…that challenges us all to tell the truth and to fight back.” Bella Abzug’s dedication to civil rights was accompanied by a belief in the rights of all oppressed groups, and as a lawyer she struggled, “for the rights of all people…who [had] been attacked by reason of their religion, their beliefs, their sex, their sexual preference, [or] their race.”
An Orthodox Jewish woman born in Philadelphia to Russian immigrant parents, Eve Arnold (1912-2012) rose to prominence as a photographer with the global photographic cooperative Magnum Photos. Throughout her career her goal remained steady: “to get to the core of things.” During her long and varied career, she spent time in Washington and Virginia capturing photos of the civil rights movement and the integration process. In 1958, she documented the integration crisis in the area with images of prominent political figures like Thurgood Marshall as well as photos of more casual situations like black and white children at a party to introduce students of different races to one another. This collection reveals Eve Arnold’s awareness of the movement in the Washington area at both a political and social level and indicates her desire to display these elements to the American people through her art. You can view Eve Arnold’s photos of the 1958 Integration Crisis and the Non-Violence movement in Virginia on the official Magnum Photos website.
These women represent only a small segment of the Jewish women who interacted with the civil rights movement in Washington, D.C. Jewish women came to the movement from all walks of life and contributed to the cause in a wide variety of ways.
We are creating the core exhibition for our new museum in which we would like to give women’s stories like these a prominent place. Do you have any objects in your personal collection from the civil rights movement or do you know any Jewish women who were involved in it? Please contact us at CBauer@jhsgw.org or (202) 789-0900.
Rebecca Friedman is a rising senior at Johns Hopkins University, working on a B.A. in History with minors in Jewish Studies and The Program in Museums and Society.
 Marione Ingram, The Hands of Peace (New York: Skyhouse Publishing, 2015), 27.  Ibid., 81.  Ibid., 128.  Ibid., 9.  Patricia Bosworth, “Bella Abzug,” Nation 277, no. 3 (July 21, 2003): 20.  Leandra Zarnow, “Braving Jim Crow to Save Willie McGee: Bella Abzug, the Legal Left, and Civil Rights Innovation, 1948-1951,” Law & Social Inquiry 33, no. 4 (Fall 2008): 1003.  Debra L. Schultz, Going South: Jewish Women in the Civil Rights Movement (New York: New York University Press, 2001), xiii.  Jewish Women's Archive, "Bella Abzug Explains her View of Feminism," (Viewed on July 27, 2016) <http://jwa.org/media/abzug-explains-her-view-of-feminism-as-vision-of-what-we-love>.  Bret Senft, “Eve Arnold: In Retrospect,” Photo District News 15, no. 10 (September 1995): 30.
When you hear that an English major from Florida is interning at a local history organization, you may scratch your head at first, but it made perfect sense to me. When not studying the literary arts, I also minor in both museum studies and art history, eventually wanting to go into the museum field. Because of my previous work at my university’s fine arts museum, I feel I have a decent understanding of the “art” part of my minor, however, the “history” was sort of lost. At the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington (JHSGW) I got to work with the personal history of DC area, while also learning about the day to day at a history museum.
One of my first projects was working with the resident curator, Christiane, and the collection’s reference files. I was given a large stack of photocopied documents, magazines, and newspaper articles to sort through, categorize, and organize. A daunting task for any, but through this work, I was able to familiarize myself with the Greater Washington area and learn about the challenges the community faces. While reviewing files, I came across a few articles about the changing social climate of Washington neighborhoods with the introduction of a larger millennial population. I brought both the subject and my personal experience seeing the gentrification in the city to Christiane’s attention and she set me out on a research project.
She introduced me to the amusement park, Glen Echo. Located on the Potomac River, this leisure destination opened in 1891 and later became a major player in the desegregation of the Washington area. It was in the summer of 1960 when students from Howard University’s Non-violent Action Group (NAG) joined forces with local activists in the Bannockburn neighborhood -- among them many Jewish residents -- to picket the discrimination at Glen Echo. These protests eventually caught the eye of Hyman Bookbinder, a prominent lobbyist in DC and a Bannockburn inhabitant, who both joined the picketing and brought the issue to the then-U.S. Attorney General, Robert Kennedy. With the help of both Bookbinder and Kennedy, the management of Glen Echo backed down and allowed their first African-American guests in the summer of 1961.
While my initial readings of the influx of the millennial population on the DC area were mostly negative in regards to gentrification, my personal research on Glen Echo showed me that newer generations can still make changes for the better in their neighborhoods – like the students of NAG and the residents of Bannockburn. It was my first major research project that allowed me to uncover the history of the area, instead of my usual literary and artistic analysis.
My other projects included working with the program and outreach manager, Samantha Abramson, experiencing some of the behind-the-scenes of the various summer events that JHSGW put on. My duties included writing emails to invited guests, distributing an educational packet for nearby schools, and even creating a press release for one of our biggest events this summer, the inaugural Evelyn Greenberg Preservation Awards. This type of work showed me the amount of time and effort that goes in to fully engaging with a museum’s audience.
Everyone at the office made me feel genuinely welcomed and were happy to see me every day of my internship, and would even include me in on staff meetings as if I was part of the team. These meetings were informative as I would see the beginning steps of designing and planning a future museum, while also learning about the other departments of the office. The meetings were one of my favorite things because of how much information I was absorbing. Although my time here was short, seeing JHSGW during its formative years of planning their new museum left an impact on me and, while I’m excited to see my future in the museum field, I also look forward towards theirs.
Stephen Biegel is a senior at Florida State University, working on a B.A. in English Literature with minors in Art History and Museum Studies.
We mourn the loss of Reverend John Steinbruck who died yesterday at the age of 84.
Pastor at Luther Place Memorial Church in Washington DC from 1970 to 1997, Reverend Steinbruck was a staunch advocate for the Soviet Jewry movement. He regularly attended the daily vigil outside the Soviet Embassy (1970-1991)and recruited his parishioners and other Christian clergy to attend the vigil on Jewish holidays. He traveled to the Soviet Union to meet with refuseniks and was part of Jewish Community Council’s delegations to the World Conferences on Soviet Jewry.
Object #: 1999.13.1 Donor: Pearl Franck Description: Celebration for the 25th Anniversary of the State of Israel, May 1973. L to R: Bernie Rosenberg (celebration chair for Jewish Community Council of Greater Washington), D.C. Mayor Walter Washington, and Isaac Franck (executive director of the Jewish Community Council of Greater Washington)
Background: Isaac Franck became executive director of the Jewish Community Council of Greater Washington in 1949. Franck, working with such influential Council presidents as Rabbi Isadore Breslau, Aaron Goldman, Albert E. Arent, Louis Grossberg, and Seymour D. Wolf, led the Community Council as it addressed a wide range of social and political problems.
While the Council was formed to serve the local Jewish community, it did not shy away from issues that affected the greater good. Among these were issues of civil rights and desegregation, education, assistance to the poor, separation of church and state, equal opportunity, and Home Rule for the District of Columbia. For example, in 1953, the Council lent its name to the Thompson’s Restaurant court case, decided by the Supreme Court. The case ended segregation in public accommodations in Washington, D.C. Following desegregation of public schools the subsequent year, the Council worked with city and religious leaders to encourage a peaceful transition. In 1963, Franck arranged for Martin Luther King, Jr., to address a citywide meeting at Adas Israel. That August, King returned to Washington to give his “I Have a Dream” speech at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The Council coordinated local Jewish involvement in the historic event. In this photo of the march, Franck is seen in the lower right.
When Isaac Franck retired in 1973, Jewish Community Council membership had more than tripled. The Washington Post wrote that he “gave [the Jewish community] not only a degree of cohesion, he also sought for it a special place because of its location in the national’s capital.” During Franck's tenure, the Council grew dramatically and worked with other organizations and faiths. He enabled 173 local organizations to speak as one while taking action on a wide range of community matters.