Life Across the River
Many Alexandrians sympathized with the Confederacy. When occupying Union forces required local businessmen to take a loyalty oath, several initially refused, including shoe-store owner Joseph Rosenthal and clothing-store owner Simon Waterman.
Military officers ordered several merchants thought to be disloyal, including Waterman, to be transported from the city in June 1863. After the Secretary of War rescinded the order, Waterman signed an Oath of Loyalty to the Union on July 9, 1863.
Example of a loyalty oath.
"I ______ of the County of _______, State of _______, do solemnly swear, in presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Union of the States thereunder; and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the existing rebellion with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not repealed, modified, or held void by Congress, or by decision of the Supreme Court; and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all proclamations of the President made during the existing rebellion having reference to slave, so long and so far as not modified or declared void by decision of the Supreme Court: So help me God.
Subscribed and sworn to before me, at ____________________ this ____ day of ___, A.D. 186__.
The above-named has ____ complexion, _____ hair, and ____ eyes; and is ___ feet ____ inches high."