The Jewish Community of Washington, D.C., during the Civil War

By Robert Shosteck


Washington, D.C., is unique among American cities in that it is both a city and the capital of the United States. Throughout its long history, the city has been made up of two segments: permanent residents of the city whose roots were in Washington, and a smaller but influential segment whose roots were elsewhere. These were the politicians and their staffs, the lobbyists, and those whose business with the government required their sojourn for a few months or a few years.

During war times – and this was particularly true of the Civil War period – these transient residents increased in number many fold. Many were attracted by business opportunities, the chance to earn a good livelihood by meeting the added demand for merchandise and services of all sorts.

These observations regarding the community at large are pertinent for the Jewish community. The Civil War period saw a substantial increase in the size of the Jewish community. Most of these newcomers came for the “duration” and retained their ties in New York and other northern cities. We find it particularly difficult to identify many of these as Jews because their names do not often appear in congregational records. Some able and devoted men and women among these transients made significant contributions to the life of the community.[1]

I: Religious Activities

Washington Hebrew Congregation was the center of Jewish religious life in the nation’s capital during the Civil War period. It was organized on April 25, 1852, at the home of Herman Listberger on Pennsylvania Avenue near 21st Street.[2] Solomon Pribram was chosen president of the new group. The twenty or more founders were almost all recent immigrants from Germany. Two years later the Congregation had increased to about forty and included Capt. Jonas P. Levy among its supporters.[3]

The growing congregation soon was faced with the problem of finding a suitable place of worship. The editor of the Occident reported on the matter as follows:

We learn from the Evening Star that the Israelites are making strenuous exertions to provide themselves with a suitable place of worship. They are highly spoken of for their industry and general good conduct, and have won the good opinion of other denominations. They lately celebrated the receipt of a Sepher Torah, on which occasion they had a public dinner. We trust, however, to hear before many months have elapsed, that the contemplated Synagogue has been completed, and is the resort of many and devout and pious Israelites.[4]

Later in the same year Reverend Isaac Leeser visited Washington and reported on the state of congregational affairs to his readers:

We visited the house lately fitted up as a place of worship…They have a Hazan and Shochet in the person of the Rev. Mr. H. Melle. We learned…that…several Israelites in the District had not joined the Congregation; but we hope that the difficulties…may be speedily removed, so that the Israelites of the vicinity may contribute, to promote the welfare of their faith.[5]

In July, 1857, a constitution and by-laws were formally adopted, and Captain Jonas Levy was elected President.[6] By 1859, the growing congregation had secured a building to serve as their place of worship. A local newspaper describes the event as follows:

The ceremony of moving into a new synagogue, at the corner of Ninth and D streets, took place on Friday afternoon, May 20 (Iyar 5619) with a full attendance of its members. The usual ceremony was performed by the Rev. Mr. Landsberg, minister of the Congregation, after which Capt. Jonas P. Levy made a…short address to the audience.[7]

Within a month the congregation was seeking its first paid functionary. The following ad appeared in the Occident, in June 1859:

Wanted: By the first Hebrew Congregation of the City of Washington, a Hazan, Shochet and Teacher in Hebrew, and, if possible, in the German language. The salary will be $400 a year, besides perquisites amounting to $150. Communications, with testimonials must be forwarded to

Samuel Herman, Secretary

By October 1860, the Congregation was looking for larger quarters for its growing membership.  A news item tells this story:

We are informed that the Israelites of the national capital are now about closing the purchase of a beautiful large church of Tenth Street, between E and F Streets. The building cost originally $13,000, but the price to be paid for it is $10,000; first payment $2,000…. As the Washington Congregation is neither rich nor numerous, though steadily increasing, our friends would be greatly indebted to all Israelites to assist them to obtain a suitable house of worship.[8]

A Philadelphia correspondent reports on his visit to Washington:

Six years ago there was not a Minyan to be found in that city; now there are about four hundred Yehudim there…great credit should be accorded to Capt. Jonas P. Levy, through whose exertions and perseverance, not only a congregation has been formed, but a new building has just been purchased….[9]

When the congregation adopted a Constitution in 1861, it prescribed an “Aschkeness” [sic] Minhag according to the Redelheim prayer book.[10] S. Weil, elected hazzan in 1859, served in that office until 1869. This Constitution provided for salaried officers consisting of “Hazan, Schocath, [sic] and Teacher in German and Hebrew. Preacher and Lecturer, if desired.” The early war years witnessed the comings and goings of many “Israelites” to and from the nation’s capital. The influx of soldiers, the tide of battle, and the burgeoning of war activities in the federal government all attracted newcomers, many Jews among them. As one writer put it,

So rapid are the changes in Jewish population on the one hand, and the increase so great on the other, that what would be true this year, would be the reverse in the next.[11]

The wartime growth of the Jewish community brought about a need for a larger house of worship. The congregation purchased a church property on 8th Street, N.W., between H and I, for $8,000. It was acquired February 9, 1863, by Joseph H. Henline, Emanuel Gutman, and Moses Seigel, Trustees of the Congregation.[12] An advertisement appealing for funds appeared in the Occident:

To the Benevolent of Every Sect. The first (and only) Hebrew congregation of the City of Washington…ventures to the benevolent citizens of said city and other cities and places for aid…they have long earnestly desired…a building in which they could…humbly and devoutly worship God; yet the smallness of their number (they are only sixty members…) puts it wholly out of their power to gratify this long cherished desire. But the time has come…to attempt its gratification. They have accordingly entered into a contract for the purchase of a church edifice…from their slender means they have cheerfully contributed several thousand dollars. They earnestly and imploringly ask of the benevolent of the land to aid them in raising the additional amount, to enable them to pay the residue of the said purchase.

Isaac Herzberg, President
Adolph Adler, Recording Secretary

J. H. Hanlein
Emanuel Gutman    Trustees [13]
Moses Siegel

This appeal was endorsed by the Mayor of Washington, as follows:

Mayor’s Office, Washington,

Feb. 17, 1863

This object is a laudable one, which commends itself to all. The parties engaged in the undertaking are residents of this city, personally well known to me, and are gentlemen of character.

Richard Wallace, Mayor

The new synagogue was dedicated on July 31, 1863. The Occident[14] devoted thirteen pages of its next issue to a description of the ceremonies and summaries of the addresses of the Reverends Isaac Leeser and Henry Hochheimer. Reverend Leeser delivered the principal address, while Reverend Hochheimer, of Baltimore, delivered a short farewell address in German in the old synagogue.

Another newspaper account states that:

The dedication took place in the presence of a large audience. Several of the clergy of the District were present, among them Revs. W. M. D. Ryan of the M. E. Church, and C. T. Cochel and Oliver Cox of the M. P. Church, and S. P. Hill of the Baptist Church; also many prominent citizens, including members of our City Council, members of the bar and the press.[15]

From the description of the dedication ceremonies, the Congregation’s ritual and practices were traditional in character. Until the late 1860s, men and women sat separately at services, and services were held on both the first and second days of holy days.[16]

The Jewish Messenger described a typical service:

The services were conducted with decorum and solemnity. The Rev. S[amuel] Weil read the services in a devout and agreeable manner, reciting the prayer for the Government in both Hebrew and English. The Haphtorah is read in German…The Congregation is prospering greatly, numbering about ninety members.[17]

Simon Wolf notes that:

The attendance in synagogue during Passover has been very large. There were but a few soldiers present, owing, I presume, to the difficulty of obtaining passes. The very excellent choir has undergone an orthodox change in the substituting of boys for sopranos, in place of young ladies – a commendable alteration.[18]

The death of Lincoln evoked a great expression of grief in which American Jewry declared its unity with the nation in this time of sorrow. The Reverend Isaac Leeser came to Washington to conduct a memorial service for the late President Lincoln. This event was reported in the Occident:

The Editor was called on…to deliver an address on the 22d of April with reference to the death of President Lincoln. Not deeming himself at liberty to refuse the request, he repaired thither…and spoke on Verse 3, of Chapter 10, of Leviticus…the Synagogue was about two-thirds full, many Israelites in the city being too much absorbed in business to devote this one day to the service of God in the first place, and to do honor to the memory of the President…those present, however, proved by the close attention to the service that they felt the importance of the occasion.[19]

Leeser also chided the local community for its lack of observance of the Sabbath:

As regards the Israelites of Washington, they are generally prosperous; but we deeply regret that the Sabbath rest is so generally neglected by far too many. They speak of reforming this wrong, and we hope that they may have the heart to keep their promises, and that others may soon join them in their good change.[20]

II: Social and Cultural Life

The organization of a congregation and the steady growth of the Jewish community of Washington led to the development of purely Jewish social and cultural groups.

A fraternal group, the Free Sons of Israel, is mentioned briefly as early as 1857:

Pursuant to a call by the Sons of Israel…a meeting was held at the Synagogue on Fourth Street, on Sunday evening, the 20th of September, 1857. Captain Jonas P. Levy was called to the chair, and Mr. Levy Bar as Secretary.

The purpose of this meeting was to protest against the Swiss Treaty, which discriminated against American Jewish citizens sojourning there.[21] We do not hear again about the Free Sons of Israel in periodicals until after the Civil War, when the local branch, known as Isaiah Lodge No. 22, is listed in Boyd’s Directory for 1869.

Some Jews took an active role in fraternal groups and in societies. Simon Wolf, for example, is mentioned many times as a participant in the activities of various German societies in Washington in the 1860s and later. He was often listed as a speaker at German fraternal functions and served on several boards.[22]

Jews also were identified with the Masonic order from the very beginning of the Washington Jewish community. We find Leopold Oppenheimer and S. N. Solomon initiated in 1853, Levi Cohen and Isaac Herzberg affiliating in 1857. A total of twenty-five men in the community joined the Masonic order between 1853 and 1865. All are listed in the Comprehensive Cemetery List. In addition to those mentioned above, these were: Adajah and Michael Behrend, Augustus Binswanger, J. H. and Mark Cohen, Bernard Gusdorf, A. A. Gutman, Abraham and Jacob Herman, Benjamin and Jonas Kaufman, Harry and Serf Levy, Henry Strasberg, Henry Moses, S. J. and Solomon Strauss, Simon and William Wolf, and Max Weyl.[23]

We are unable to find records of Jews holding offices in the local Masonic order. The 1860 Boyd’s Directory, however, lists Morris Adler as Secretary to Potomac Lodge No. 5. From conversations with several Masonic leaders in Washington, the author concludes that Jewish interest in Masonry is explained by the liberal tenets of the order, the ready acceptance of Jews into membership, and the leadership of Jews in the establishment of Masonry in America.

Notices of cultural activities appeared in 1863 in two leading Jewish periodicals. One traveling editor wrote:

Another institution…is the “Washington Literary and Dramatic Association,” comprising coreligionists exclusively, and boasting now of seventy-five members. A course of lectures was announced to be delivered before them by the following gentlemen: Park Benjamin; Henry Ward Beecher; Horace Greeley; John W. Forney; Mr. West, Editor of the Chronicle; Mr. Max Cohnheim, Editor of the Columbia; Raphael J. De Cordova; and Dr. Isaac M. Wise. A more ambitious undertaking than any of our metropolitan societies, however pretentious, have as yet attempted.

They had just commenced a library, which already embraced three hundred volumes. It was surprising to see the interest displayed by the members, almost all of whom are engaged in mercantile pursuits. Meetings are held every Sunday afternoon.

Great credit is due to the officers, among whom are recognized several New Yorkers;  Captain Isaac Gotthold, formerly of this city, is President; Joseph H. Manheimer, Treasurer; A. Binswanger, Secretary, and Messrs. Ellis Lyons, Marcus J. Waldheimer, Solomon A. Rider, and G. H. Lesser are the Curators.

The editor also mentioned that, besides this, there are two other societies among our co-religionists in Washington, Harmonie Circle and Select Assembly – these being social, rather than literary, organizations.[24]

In the fall of 1863, the Reverend Isaac Leeser, while visiting Washington, reported:

a Literary Society is in full operation. A meeting was held on Sunday afternoon, August 2d, at which among others, Mr. Simon Wolf, a young lawyer, delivered a pleasing address, which he has printed for private circulation.[25]

Charitable functions on behalf of the synagogue were held occasionally in the nation’s capital. Reverend Leeser reports on a ball in his news column:

In the evening we were invited to attend a ball given in honor of the opening of the Synagogue, the proceeds of which were to be devoted in its behalf. We repaired to the Odd Fellows Hall, where the festivities took place, and, notwithstanding the great heat, there were assembled several hundred young Israelites, who filled the room to such an extent that all could not participate in the amusement at one time. We certainly had no idea that so many of our people could be brought together in Washington; but there they were, many the residents of the city, others of Alexandria and Baltimore, and some of New York.[26]

In 1864, the Reverend Isaac Leeser once again had occasion to visit Washington. He reported in glowing terms the activities of the local Jewish cultural group:

There is another institution of Washington which is afforded me decided gratification to visit and revisit; the headquarters of the Literary and Dramatic Association. The members of this young Society have developed more enterprise than any similar body of Jewish young men throughout the country.

They have a commodious suite of rooms on Pennsylvania Avenue opposite the Metropolitan Hotel, – one apartment fitted up as a library and reading room, another arranged with tables for chess, checkers, dominoes (and no cards), and a third, of larger size, adapted for the purpose of a meeting room. They have given during the winter a series of soirees which were quite enjoyable. On the Sunday afternoon that I called at the rooms there were a number of gentlemen in the Library…Among them the Hon. Myer Strouse, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania.

But of the Society – it now numbers about 75 members; Simon Wolf, Esq., of the Washington Bar, is President…Several gentlemen of the legal editorial professions adorn the rolls; but the preponderance of members represents the mercantile class.[27]

B’nai B’rith entered into the life of the Washington Jewish community early in 1864. This event was described as follows:

On Sunday, January 31, the new lodge of B’nai B’rith, lately organized at the capital under the name Elijah Lodge No. 50, was duly installed by a delegation of the Grand Lodge No. 3, consisting of Raphael Teller, Lewis Ellinger, Sol Hoffheimer, Isaac Leeser, and B. Burgauer, besides whom were president G. Vasen of Philadelphia; I. Simson, M. H. Weil, and – Gusdorf, of Baltimore. G. Siegel was elected President. After the installation, the delegates were entertained by a supper at the house of Mr. Beggardt. The new society consists of about twenty-eight members.[28]

The next year Leeser again reported on the local B’nai B’rith on the occasion of his addressing Elijah Lodge.[29] He was gratified to learn that in fourteen months it had done much good and acquired a capital of over $900. He noted that good will and order prevailed among the members. He was again asked to speak to the lodge (in German) on “the tendency and object of the order.”

The Harmonie Club, mentioned earlier, comes in for further public notice. Simon Wolf reports that “the Harmonie Club will on Purim, give a ‘Mask Ball’ which promises to be a success.”[30] In the same account the Reverend Leeser once again spoke of his invitation to address the Literary and Dramatic Association. In his speech he made the point that in the absence of high schools, such a society, where intellectual enjoyment is encouraged, is absolutely needed to withdraw young people from the card table and kindred pursuits.

Wolf reports further that the Association gave two public soirées at their hall that were well attended. He mentions that L. F. Tasitro, Esq., a well-known reader and elocutionist, gave a lecture on “The Stars That Have Set,” which abounded in masterly delineations of character, eloquent and chaste, and was a decided and intellectual treat. On Washington’s birthday a select soirée, held at Odd Fellows Hall, was graced by the wit and beauty of the Capital. The Chronicle, says Wolf, called it “the affair of the season.”[31] On the 26th of February, Max Cohnheim, Esq., gave a humorous and musical soirée, assisted by some of the first talent of the city. At each of the soirées the members gave evidence, says Wolf, of their talent in recitations, music, song reading, poems and essays, and have established a character that would do Gotham no dishonor.[32]

The first Jewish religious school in the District of Columbia was opened in 1861 under the auspices of the Washington Hebrew Congregation.[33] This new congregation, in creating this day school, was following a pattern already set in many other cities.

Several factors influenced this small community to take this important step. First was the fact that the existing public school system was very inadequate in terms of building facilities and qualified teaching staff. Second was the fact that most of the Jews of Washington were recent arrivals from Germany. These parents wanted their children to study German as a means of preserving a connecting link with the home and culture left behind. German, an important subject in the new school’s curriculum, was not offered by the public schools. Finally, more religious instruction could be imparted in a regular day school than in an afternoon or weekend school.

The Washington Hebrew Elementary School met daily from 9 to noon, and from 1 to 4 p.m. The morning was devoted to the study of Hebrew and German, and the afternoon to the teaching of English and kindred subjects. Members of the congregation paid a dollar a month tuition, and non-members a dollar and a half for each child. In 1865, the only year for which any figures are available, there were seventy-five children in the school; sixty-four of members and eleven of non-members. Dr. Henry Hochheimer of Baltimore came to Washington to examine classes every three months.

The Reverend S. Weil, who served the congregation from 1860 through 1867, was the school’s first teacher, holding this position through the Civil War period.[34]  From 1861 to 1863 the school met in rented quarters. In the latter year the Congregation purchased a church building on 8th Street for a permanent synagogue and school. Here the school continued to meet through the entire Civil War period.

III: Economic Status

A few Jewish merchants, attracted by the business prospects of Washington, settled in the early 1850s. More came in the latter part of the decade, almost all recent arrivals from the German states and principalities.

On the eve of the outbreak of the Civil War, Washington, including the prosperous port of Georgetown, had a population of 75,000. It had experienced a steady growth, stimulated by the growing immigration from Europe and its increasing importance as the nation’s capital. In 1840, its population was 44,000; by 1850, it had reached almost 52,000. In the next decade, despite the retrocession of thirty square miles of territory, including Alexandria, to Virginia, the population increased almost fifty per cent.[35]

The economic life of Washington depended largely upon the fact that it was the nation’s capital. The people earned their livelihoods mainly in providing the goods and services needed by the thousands of workers in the executive and legislative branches of the federal government and the additional numbers who came to the seat of government on business. Georgetown, a separate city although part of the District of Columbia, had a number of mills and factories and a certain amount of shipping trade that helped to support its population.

More than fifty Jewish families appear on the 1860 census enumerators’ sheets for the District of Columbia.[36] This identification was made on the basis of similar names appearing on both the enumerators’ sheets and on the consolidated cemetery list. An analysis of the data reveals a median age of twenty-six for all adult males and a median age of twenty-five for all adult females. Among the fifty-six employed persons in this group, forty-one were born in the German states, nine in the United States, and five in other European countries (Poland, Austria, and England). All four employed Jewish women were milliners.

Among the fifty-one employed men, the distribution of occupations was as follows:




Clerks (chiefly in stores)

Watch repair and jewelry



Cigar manufacturer






















Thus we have a picture in 1860 of the Jewish community forming an insignificant segment of the total population, fewer than 200 out of 75,000. Counting “clerks” and those providing services such as shoemakers and watch repairmen, we find that eighty-eight per cent were in some mercantile field.

The economic picture began to change drastically after the outbreak of war. Freight yards, hotels, restaurants, and barrooms carried on a rushing business. Soldiers were everywhere. The price of foodstuffs soared.[37] The city enjoyed a new material prosperity as the war went on. Commissary and quartermaster supplies poured into the city month after month. New warehouses went up and the government bought, leased, or built offices, hospitals, and workshops for the repair of military equipment. Twenty-five military hospitals came into existence in the Washington area.[38]

The demand for food, lodging, household goods, and clothes sent prices skyrocketing. The war was enriching tailors, merchants, blacksmiths, saddlers, and food purveyors. There were now some 450 restaurants and bars. Liquor license fees jumped from a pre-war $10,000 average to $91,000 in 1863.[39] According to a contemporary newspaper, army contractors, men seeking special favors, and heavy-hearted men and women who came to inquire for wounded relatives filled the hotels to overflowing. Five hundred new arrivals a day came to be commonplace.[40]

Business increased by leaps and bounds with the growth in population, increase in transients, and the influx of tens of thousands of soldiers who were assigned to guard the capital or were en route to the scene of conflict in the South. These, then, were the economic circumstances that attracted many new businessmen, Jews and non-Jews alike, to the nation’s capital during the war years. Significant changes occurred in the Jewish community after the outbreak of war.

By 1862, the influx of Jewish newcomers was considerable. A “Correspondent” reports that:

The number of Israelites quartered in Washington and its vicinity (exclusive of those in the Army) cannot fall short of two thousand. As evidence of their presence, there are at least half a dozen kosher restaurants, all of which appear to flourish to the satisfaction of their proprietors. At one of them in particular, about dinner hour, there were forty guests seated at the same time, and, on their departure, an equal number ready to take their places. Many are the commercial establishments conducted under names familiar to a New Yorker. All departments of trade seem to be favored with a full representation from the metropolitan district.[41]

In Boyd’s Directory for 1862, we find many advertisements of Jewish firms. Wertheimer and Company, were “Importers and Dealers in Brandies, Wines and Segars – Officers and Sutlers Supplied.” C. Hammerschlag carried a large notice of his “Most Extensive Pie and Cake Bakery in Washington City.” Among brokers was listed Henry Levy.

By 1863, when assessments were made in connection with the wartime income tax, we are able to identify 114 Jewish names in the records.[42] This was done, as before, by a comparison of these names with names on our Consolidated Cemetery List. There were no doubt many more. Among these 114 Jewish businessmen, seventy per cent were classified as peddlers who sold their wares to sick and wounded soldiers in the hospitals or to visitors in the city. Another four per cent were hotel or innkeepers, and six per cent each were in manufacturing and wholesaling. Thus, in a short space of three years we find Jews in several new areas of business.

The manuscript reports of Dun and Bradstreet shed added light on the status of Jewish businessmen during the Civil War.[43] These reports typically present them as small operators who are doing well and have a good, though limited, credit rating. The four cases cited are identified as Jewish, from the Consolidated Cemetery list:

Louis Barr is reported (June, 1865) as “making money and has accumulated considerable since the war commenced…prompt…worth $2,000 to $5,000…”

A. Kaufman (May, 1864) is considered good for small bills…fair stock and business.

Bernard Silverberg (June, 1864)…has been a bookkeeper, and now takes the fancy dry good store formerly kept by Mrs. John D. Evans…In July, they report: Probably has $3,000 to $4,000 capacity…young married man of good habits and fair prospects.

Max Weyl, later a famous artist, is reported (November, 1861): Small means, hardly more than watch repairer…entitled to only small credit…The epilogue (October, 1877) states: Out of business…wife doing small business…has a stock of $800 or $900….

Mr. Weyl, a business failure, was encouraged to take up art by the painter Samuel H. Kaufmann, President of Board of Directors of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, who taught him free of charge. He subsequently achieved fame as an artist, winning many prizes and medals. His works are in the permanent collections of the National Gallery of Art and the Corcoran Gallery of Art.[44]

Simon Wolf reports on the general economic status of Washington’s Jewry as follows:

It is my pleasant duty to record a favorable change in the condition of the Jewish residents in the capital of the nation… Previous to the war, there were but few of our People living here, and their status was not everything that could be desired; but now, their number is largely in excess of the percentage of increase of the entire population, and they are to be found…successfully competing with their fellow citizens in Commerce, in the Arts, at the Bar, and in the Halls of Legislation.[45]

One of the outstanding businesses in Washington during the Civil War period was that of Philp and Solomons, booksellers, printers, and publishers. A visitor reports:

Mr. Adolphus Solomons (of Philp and Solomons) whose place of business in Pennsylvania Avenue is the resort of men of letters (for whose accommodations they have a costly “study” attached to their store) extended us the hospitalities of his house; and we passed a pleasant Sabbath with him and his good family. We were pleased to find Mr. S. doing so well in the capital, especially as he is one of the very few Israelites there who observe the Sabbath.[46]

No information is available that would identify Franklin Philp, Solomon’s partner, as a Jew. Philp’s name first appears in the City Directory in 1858, listed as a salesman. His name appears in every subsequent directory until 1875. Beginning in 1860, he is shown as Solomons’s partner, and in 1875, he is listed alone as a bookseller, at 909 Pennsylvania Avenue. By this time, Solomons had left Washington for New York City. Philp probably was a bachelor since he is listed as rooming at six different addresses in city directories between 1858 and 1875.

This firm also made its contribution to the appreciation of fine arts. A local directory informs us that “Washington artists frequently exhibit their works in the gallery belonging to Philp and Solomons.”[47] Later we find this news item of interest:

There are one or two points in and about Washington where you are pretty certain to happen upon “notabilities,” there is Philp and Solomons’[s] bookstore on the Avenue…its shelves presenting a tempting array of the newest and best issues from the press….[48]

In a later issue, under the heading of “The Fine Arts” we are informed that:

Messrs. Philp and Solomons are the publishers of all photographs produced at this establishment (Gardner Photographic Gallery) as well as The Metropolitan Gallery on Pennsylvania Avenue, and will shortly issue a handsome volume entitled Gardner’s Photographic Sketches of the War in a style of magnificence worthy of the subject.[49]

The following advertisements of books issued by Philps and Solomons are indicative of their publishing activities:

New Publications

Army and Navy Almanac and Washington Military Directory for the year 1863; containing, in addition to a calendar and the ordinary almanac information, tables of reference on matters of special interest to the united services – Edited by Ben. Perley Poore – Washington. Philp & Solomons, 1863.


Regulations for the Field Service of Cavalry in Time of War. by George B. McClellan, Major-General, U.S. Army – Fully illustrated. Washington, D.C. Philp & Solomons, Publishers and Army Stationers, 1863.[50]

This firm was a major supplier of stationery and related items to the House of Representatives during the latter part of the Civil War period. The annual report of the Clerk of the House reveals an expenditure of almost $33,000 to four stationers; of that, Philp and Solomons accounts for $26,102, or almost eighty per cent of the total.[51] During 1864, this firm received twenty orders for a very wide variety of merchandise. The bulk was for paper goods of every description, but many unusual items were supplied. One order, in the amount of $50, was for a large framed photograph of the Speaker of the House. Another expensive requisition was for a quantity of porte-monnaies, in velvet, leather, and pearl. These were purses or wallets, fashionable at the time.

This firm was also asked to supply, often in gross or thousand quantity, such items as ivory folders, pocket knives, diaries, autograph books, quill pens, pen cutters, and sand boxes [ash trays?]. Among luxury items were enameled gold cases, agate seals, gloss inkstands and gold mounted, screw-propelling pencils – forerunners of our present day mechanical pencil. Another item, which we are unable to identify, was the “ne plus ultra” of which 50 gross were ordered at one time. Could this have been a paper clip or straight pin? The item purchased in huge quantity in 1864 was speech envelopes. These were used by Members of Congress to mail their two-to-twenty page speeches to constituents. Six orders, totaling 5,160,000 envelopes, were filled by this firm. One million of these were designated “extra heavy” to accommodate the bulkier speeches of long-winded orators.

It is evident from this sampling of services rendered to one chamber of the legislative branch of government for one year, that the firm of Philp and Solomons played an important role in supplying the United States Government with one of the sinews of war, the paper goods needed to record the activities of government.

The local Jewish community was too small to support a newspaper of its own. However, members of the community supported the local German weekly newspaper. In 1863, Max Cohnheim, a Jewish journalist from New York, established a German language weekly, Columbia, in Washington. Cohnheim had taken an active part in the German Revolution of 1848, was indicted for high treason in Baden in 1848, and sentenced to eight years in prison. He succeeded in escaping and fled to the United States.

In New York he became a successful author and composed many farces and dramas in the 1850s.[52] He wrote one of the first plays directed specifically for the German-American stage, Herz und Dollar. Another of his propaganda plays, Fursten zum Land Hinaus, portrayed the final triumph of republicanism in Germany.[53] Cohnheim established a magazine, The New York Humorist, which flourished from 1858 until 1861. He then left for Washington where he obtained a position with the Treasury Department. Secure in his new job, he sought an outlet for his journalistic interests. He found a printer in Werner Koch. Financial support came from Nicholas Weygand, a wine and liquor dealer, and Ferdinand Kasche, a prosperous hotel owner.

Cohnheim’s new weekly made its first appearance on October 17, 1863. Beginning with 200 subscribers, the list climbed to 800 within four months and exceeded 1,600 for 1865.[54] Cohnheim enthusiastically supported the Lincoln administration during the three and one-half years he edited this newspaper. His news columns were almost entirely oriented to national political and cultural matters. He devoted space liberally to local German cultural events and to war news of local interest.

The two great issues concerning Jews – the chaplaincy and the notorious General Orders No. 11 – occurred before Columbia entered the scene. The only reference to Jewish matters are announcements of local events. The issue of December 5, 1863 [p. 5] announced the Washington Literary and Dramatic Society’s First Series of Literary Events. Dr. Isaac M. Wise lectured on “The Jewish People – Their History” and R. J. DeCordova, a popular lecturer of the day, spoke on “Life and Liberty.” The issue of December 12 [p. 5], carried further note of Dr. Wise’s lecture, and identified him as editor of The Israelite. The following week’s issue [p. 5] informed readers that Dr. Wise would speak at the Synagogue on Saturday in German, and on Sunday in English. The German Aid Society for Sick and Wounded Soldiers, of which G. Cohen was Corresponding Secretary, was publicized in several issues of Columbia beginning on January 9, 1864. This Society sponsored a Great Fair, and sought the support of the entire German community. The May 14 issue of Columbia [p. 3] carried a prominently placed story on the retirement of Isaac Gotthold as president of the Washington Literary and Dramatic Society. Included was a lengthy resolution recounting his services to the organization.

In his editorials, Cohnheim attacked everything that seemed conventional, and often he directed his editorial barbs against all religious sects. Columbia became the most colorful German language paper ever published in Washington. Occasionally he opened his columns to those whom he attacked.

In the issue following Lincoln’s death, all pages of Columbia were bordered in black to express the profound sorrow of German-Americans everywhere. On August 14, 1865, Columbia appealed to German societies in the city to help raise funds for a Lincoln statue. Many public events took place to raise a substantial sum, which was used in 1868 to erect a statue to Lincoln in front of City Hall.

With business booming during the war years, Cohnheim found ready support for his weekly through advertisements by the businessmen of German origin, both Jewish and Christian. We find advertisements of the following Jewish business houses: Wolf and Hart, Julius Lownthal, Levi Baar, L. Seldner, Gotthelf and Behrend, Lansburgh and Bro., Philp and Solomons, J. Biggardt and Joseph Nathan. These names are identified with the Jewish community of the 1860s.

Cohnheim was so encouraged by this success that he resigned his government position on April 1, 1866, and moved his office from Koch’s print shop to a more commodious location on Pennsylvania Avenue. These steps were taken almost at the start of a post-war business recession that saw large numbers of German-Americans leave Washington. Columbia’s revenues fell sharply while expenses remained at a new high level.

On January 12, 1867, Cohnheim had to inform his readers that “family reasons force us to resign.” Heavily in debt, Cohnheim suddenly departed for San Francisco and was never again seen in the District of Columbia. Werner Koch took over publication of Columbia, continuing as editor-publisher until March 1873, when his paper was merged with the Journal. After the Civil War, Nehemiah H. Miller began publication of a daily, the Täglicher Washingtoner Anzeiger. L. Kronheimer was a frequent contributor to the German language Washington Journal.[55]

The city directories of the war years reveal the influx of several Jewish professionals. Hutchinson’s Washington and Georgetown Directory for 1863 lists a physician, Phineas J. Horwitz, and Simon Wolf, a lawyer.

Dr. Jonathan P. Horwitz, born in Baltimore in 1822, received his medical training at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He entered the U.S. Navy as Assistant Surgeon in 1847. From 1859 until 1865 he was a medical officer in the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, in Washington, D.C., and was promoted to Chief of the Bureau in 1865, serving in that capacity until July 1, 1869.[56]

Dr. Adajah Behrend, who received his medical degree from Georgetown University, was born in Hanover, Germany in 1841. He entered the Union Army as a private, transferred to the 2nd U.S. Regulars, and was promoted to Hospital Steward with the Army of the Potomac, in Washington. He was wounded by gunfire near Harrisons’ Landing on the James River, and invalided home. For a time he served as demonstrator of anatomy at his alma mater. He served as Physician to the Poor in the Fourth War of Washington.[57]

Boyd’s Washington and Georgetown Directory for 1865 lists Simon Wolf and Abraham Hart as lawyers; Julius Loewenthal and Co., as “attorneys for prosecution of claims before all departments and Court of Claims”; and an additional physician, Leonard Baum. The firm of Gritzer and Cohen is listed under patent agents. In the same directory we find the list of a number of Jewish-owned or operated boarding houses and hotels. Isaac Beggardt [Biggardt], Myer May, and Alois Kohn are the boarding house operators, while William Rothschild ran the Admiral House and William Hochherz the Clinton Hotel.

The following advertisement appeared in the Occident on several occasions during the war period:


boarding house at washington, d.c.

No. 366 C Street, between 4-1/2 and 6th Streets

The subscriber takes this method of informing the public that he has lately taken the above establishment, formerly kept by Mr. J. Hildensheim, and will endeavor to do all in his power to render customers’ stays agreeable while at his house, which is within a few minutes walk of the capitol, and in a pleasant part of the city.[58]

From the scattered evidence reported here, it is apparent that a considerable number of Jewish businessmen, individuals with varied experience and backgrounds, were attracted to Washington after the outbreak of the Civil War. For the most part this was a highly transient population, men coming and going with the changing fortunes of business and with the fluctuations in the political and military situation between 1861 and 1865. The transitory nature of this group is evident from the absence of a great many of them from congregational membership rosters, and from the changes in listings and advertisements in city directories during the war years.

IV: Service in the Union Cause

The Jewish community in the nation’s capital shared the pro-Union sentiments that prevailed in Washington after 1861. These feelings were strengthened as the war dragged on with its suffering and deaths of hundreds of thousands. Havoc struck Washington with particular force because of its proximity to the seat of war, and its twenty-odd military hospitals, which cared for a multitude of sick and wounded. Washington’s small Jewish community shared with their fellow citizens the humanitarian impulse to give succor to these war sufferers. They gave generously of their time and money, both as individuals and through their congregation.

Walt Whitman noted that, at times, 50,000 men lay in the military hospitals in the Washington area, “a population more numerous in itself than the Washington of ten or fifteen years ago.” Wounded men filled improvised wards in churches, in the Insane Asylum, in the halls of the Capitol and at the Patent Office.[59]

Simon Wolf, as spokesman for the Jewish community, proposed a Jewish military hospital for the capital:

Every Israelite must be proud at the readiness displayed by our co-religionists in responding to the call of their country, for its protection. Everywhere…they have come nobly forth amongst the very first to offer, upon the altar of the sacred Union, their might, their intellect, their treasure, and, if need be, their very heart’s blood. …

Let us not forget to care for him when his manly form is stricken with disease, or he lays wounded on the battlefield. I am led to these remarks from having had an excellent opportunity to observe the manner the sick are treated in the Hospitals and Infirmary in this place, all of which fall far short of what they should be…A hospital for our people is what we want here.[60]

…It has been my privilege to pass time among these co-religionists (sick and wounded) both among our own troops and among the rebel prisoners in hospitals, and if my pen enabled me to convey to the reader one tithe of what I have witnessed, I am sure this feeble appeal for assistance will be responded to with a will and alacrity worthy of the well-known instincts of our people and the cause of our common country.[61]

Despite Wolf’s advocacy and editorial support from the Jewish press, a “Jews Hospital for Soldiers” never saw the light of day. Capt. Jonas M. Levy, another spokesman for the local Jewish community, also appealed for aid to stricken Jewish soldiers. He strongly urged “to again call the attention of our readers to the necessity of providing for the wants of Jewish soldiers in the hospitals in and around the capital.”[62]

The absence of a nurse corps in the Union Army in the early years of the war led to creation of a body of volunteer nurses, made up of women connected with religious congregations. The late Mrs. Theresa Taussig, whose father, Leopold Karpeles,[63] served in the Civil War and later took up residence in Washington, D.C., describes the war service of the women of Washington Hebrew Congregation as told to her by her father:

As in all wards the ladies of Washington aided the overtaxed hospital personnel in caring for the wounded. The daughters of my late grandparents, the Rev. Simon and Hannah Mundheim, were among these good Samaritans.[64]

This statement is corroborated in part by an official medical record on Karpeles in which mention is made of Miss Sara Mundheim as being his nearest relative, whom he subsequently married. A correspondent identified as “M” corroborates Mrs. Taussig’s statement regarding hospital services of the local community:

The congregation deserves the acknowledgements of American Israelites for the care and attention they have paid to Jewish soldiers, ill and dying, in the department of Washington. They have looked after the interment of many co-religionists who had no other claim upon them than that of brotherhood.[65]

Simon Wolf reported on another aspect of the Jewish community’s war services:

In the report just published of the Fair lately held here in aid of the Sanitary Commission, I observe that the Hebrew Society’s table is credited for $756.95; and when I tell you the entire receipts were only $10,661.47, you will readily perceive how large a proportion of the amount realized is due to the Hebrew congregation. The ladies had the matter in charge and were beaten by only one other table, that of the Treasury Department. All honor to our fair Jewesses![66]

Toward the close of the war, at a time when thousands of wounded and sick soldiers were still in hospitals, and maimed veterans were becoming a common sight in almost every community, Nathan Grossmayer, a Washington merchant, was moved to write a letter to the President. His letter follows:

Washington, D.C.
November 16th, 1864

To His Ex. Abraham Lincoln
President of the Unites States

Dear Sir:

As an adopted citizen of the United States I permit myself to make a few suggestions for the welfare of our wounded patriotic soldiers, wounded to such a degree that it is impossible for them to make a living in any way and are obliged to beg their bread from house to house.

I have seen in Paris that the soldiers wounded to such a degree are the pride of the country and there is the splendid house “Les Invalides” where they are taken care of to the honor of the country; why should we in a land so blessed in every way, do less for our patriots than the Governments of Europe. Therefore, I propose that such a place be provided by patriotic subscribers and the place well adapted for it would be the Central Park in New York City. The City no doubt would be proud of giving such a ground for such a noble purpose.

If such idea would meet with your view although I am not rich I would open the Subscription with One Thousand Dollars.

Hoping to be honored with a reply
I am very respectfully
Your obt. Servant

Nathan Grossmayer
274 Penn Avenue
Washington, D.C.[67]

Lincoln was assassinated before he was able to act on Grossmayer’s suggestions. The latter repeated his proposal in a letter to President Andrew Johnson, enclosing his contribution of $1,000, and suggesting that the home he designated as a memorial to Lincoln.[68]

Public interest in providing for sick and disabled veterans, as exemplified by Grossmayer’s proposal, led to prompt action by Congress. On March 3, 1865, Congress passed a law providing for the establishment of asylums,

for the officers and men of the volunteer forces of the United States, totally disabled by wounds received or sickness contracted while in the line of their duty during the present Rebellion.

This law was liberalized by an amendatory act passed March 21, 1866.[69] The National Military and Naval Asylum, the title of our first soldiers’ home, was incorporated in 1866. The central asylum was located at Dayton, Ohio, and it was followed by the creation of a number of branches in various sections of the country.[70]

Several Jewish men who served during the Civil War, and who were not previous residents of Washington, settled in the nation’s capital at the end of the war where they made noteworthy contributions to the life of the community.

Moses Bruckheimer came to this country in 1860, enlisted in the 66th N.Y. Infantry in April, 1861. Discharged for disability near the end of the war, he entered Columbia University, receiving his M.D. degree in 1868. He married Henrietta Fuchs and established a medical practice in Washington, where he remained until his death in 1903.[71]

Bernard Nordlinger enlisted in the “German Artillery” of Macon, Georgia, serving as a bugler in Beauregard’s Division. He was later promoted to sergeant, and was wounded at the Second Battle of Bull Run. He settled in the District immediately after the close of the war, becoming a merchant in Georgetown.[72]

Charles Stein, whose real name was George Stern, enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in June 1864 in Philadelphia. He was promoted to sergeant and later was captured by the Confederates. He was imprisoned in Pensacola and freed near the close of the war. He, too, settled in Washington and opened a butcher shop.[73]

We know of thirty-three Jewish men in Washington who heeded the call to the colors for defense of the Union. This is a large number, considering the size of the Jewish community and the fact that many were recent arrivals in the United States. The District of Columbia Civil War Index at the National Archives contains over 16,000 names. From the list, well over 100 were extracted for further study through checking of military and pension files and a later checking with the consolidated cemetery list of the three oldest congregations in the city. Below are listed names of soldiers, taken from the Index, and identified as Jewish from the cemetery list.

An asterisk indicates that the name appears on the Consolidated Cemetery List of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington. An “f” signified that this family name appears in the cemetery list.




Adijah Behrend

Jacob N. Cohn      f

Jacob P. Fass      f

*Jacob Fisher

Chas. Freirick

George Freund      f

*Michael Freund

Henry Gerber      f

Joseph Goldsmith      f

*Henry Haas

*William Hahn

Seigfriend Hammerschlag      f

*Michael Hoffa

David Jacob      f

Almond Jacobs      f

Daniel King      f

*Henry King

Moses King      f

*Samuel King

Adolph Lowenthal      f

Samuel Marks      f

*Louis Mundheim

*Abraham Rosenthal

Jacob A. Schloss      f

Adolphus Schwab      f

Joshua Sinsheimer      f

Joseph Solomon      f

*Julius Stein

William Stein      f

Richard Steinberg      f

Henry Steiner      f

George Stern

Louis Witkowsky      f


























I and A








2nd U.S. Regulars


1st D C Cav.

1st D C Cav.


2nd Inf.

2nd Inf.

6th Inf.

1st D C Cav.



5th D C Cav.























The Jewish community, like other groups in the nation’s capital, was profoundly affected by the assassination of Lincoln. They shared the public grief at the loss of their noble president. In the newspaper accounts of the events following Lincoln’s death we find references to the participation of the Jewish community.

On April 19th, there was a notice of a “Meeting of German Citizens.”

At a large meeting of German citizens of the city, held at the Winter Garden, of which Mr. Cohnheim, Editor of Columbia was president, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted….

The following day, under “Order of Procession” for Lincoln’s funeral, “German Societies” were among those listed. In the same column is listed “The Hebrew Congregation, one hundred and twenty-five men, marshaled by Benjamin Kaufman.”[74]

The following day, we find a news account entitled, “Proposed Monument to President Lincoln”:

A movement is about to be inaugurated in this city looking to the erection of a monument to the memory of President Lincoln. An offer has already been made, Messrs. Lansburgh & Bro. agreeing to head the list with $500.00. They will at once hand this amount over to any individual or organization who may be authorized to receive it for the purpose indicated.[75]

Newspapers carried descriptions of the manner in which businesses exhibited their sorrow at Lincoln’s death. “At the store of Philp and Solomons, the right window contained a colored portrait of the President and his son Tad. This was the last sitting of Mr. Lincoln for a picture. Both windows were heavily draped with white and black cambric. The balcony was heavily draped and in white letters on black background appeared these words: ‘Treason Has Done His Worst.’”[76]


During the critical war years the Washington Jewish community was but a tiny minority, hardly more than one per cent of the total population of the nation’s capital. They were largely of German origin, having arrived in the United States within a decade or at most fifteen years prior to the outbreak of the conflict.

The Jewish segment differed from the total resident population in the fact that virtually all of its members were in business, with a small proportion in the professions. The activities of the Literary Society, B’nai B’rith, and other social-cultural groups in the Jewish community strongly suggest that virtually all were literate.

Washington’s Jews shared with their fellow citizens the prevailing beliefs, hopes, and attitudes toward the war and toward the basic issues of slavery and the preservation of the Union. The victories and the defeats of war affected them as much as it did their neighbors. Jews served with Christians in the many home-front welfare, nursing, and fundraising activities of the war years.

The number of Israelites increased considerably as the war progressed. Thousands of Northerners, Jews and non-Jews alike, were drawn to the nation’s capital – the seat of government and the center of the war effort.

All of these war-related activities accelerated the Americanization of Washington’s Jewry and helped to establish the community on a firmer basis. As Dr. Bertram W. Korn observed in his American Jewry and the Civil War, “In 1865 American Jewry was more than five years older (than in 1860); it had learned the lessons and gained the insights of several generations.”

Robert Shosteck was a founder and first president of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington. He was also a founder, editor, and frequent contributor to the Society's journal, The Record. After working for B'nai B'rith International as director of research in its Vocational Service Bureau for 26 years, he became curator of the B'nai B'rith Klutznick Exhibit Halls until his retirement in 1975. He died in 1979.

Shosteck's article is an edited version of "The Jewish Community of Washington, D.C., During the Civil War," American Jewish Historical Quarterly 56 (March 1967, 319-347, and is reprinted with permission of the American Jewish Historical Society.


[1] Identification of individuals as Jews was made from the consolidated cemetery list, 1860-1930, a project of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington. This was prepared by the author with the cooperation of officers of Washington Hebrew Congregation, Adas Israel Congregation and Ohev Sholom Talmud Torah Congregation. The list includes additional names found in Nordlinger’s History of Washington Hebrew Congregation and names found in The Occident and in The Jewish Messenger.

[2] Louis Stern, “History of Washington Hebrew Congregation,” published in The Temple, Washington, D.C., March, 1898, p.1, and republished in the Washington Post, July 13, 1901.

[3] Bernard I. Nordlinger, History of Washington Hebrew Congregation (Washington, 1956), p. 11.

[4] Occident [=Occ.], vol. XIV, no. 1 (April, 1856), p. 41.

[5] Ibid.

[6] In Archives Room, Washington Hebrew Congregation.

[7] National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), May 23, 1859.

[8] Occ., vol. XVIII, no. 32 (Nov., 1860), p. 195.

[9] Ibid.

[10] B. I. Nordlinger, op. cit., p. 17.

[11] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 6 (Sept., 1863), pp. 273-274.

[12] B. I. Nordlinger, op. cit., p. 14.

[13] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 3 (June, 1863), p. 32.

[14] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 6 (Sept., 1863), pp. 273-274.

[15] Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), Aug. 1, 1863.

[16] Minutes, Washington Hebrew Congregation, Sept. 8, 1867 and Oct. 13, 1867.

[17] Jewish Messenger [=JM], vol. XIV, no. 22 (Dec. 11, 1863).

[18] JM, vol. XV, no. 17 (May 6, 1864), p. 134.

[19] Occ., vol. XXIII, no. 5 (May, 1865), p. 95.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Occ., vol. XV, no. 9 (Dec., 1857), p. 424.

[22] Society for History of Germans in Maryland, Thirtieth Report (Baltimore, 1959), pp. 49-50.

[23] Letter from the Secretary to author, Sept. 10, 1962, Records of the Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of the District of Columbia.

[24] JM, vol. XIV, no. 22 (Dec. 11, 1863), p. 200.

[25] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 6 (Sept., 1863), p. 274.

[26] Ibid.

[27] JM, vol. XV, no. 8 (Feb. 26, 1864), p. 59.

[28] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 12 (March, 1864), p. 568.

[29] Occ., vol. XXIII, no. 2 (May, 1856), p. 95.

[30] JM, vol. XVII, no. 11 (March 17, 1865), p. 96.

[31] Occ., vol. XXIII, no. 2 (May, 1865), p. 95.

[32] JM, vol. XVIII, no. 11 (March 17, 1865), p. 96.

[33] Nathan M. Kaganoff, “The Education of the Jewish Child in the District of Columbia, 1861-1915,” American University, Master’s Thesis, 1956, pp. 1-5.

[34] Abram Simon, A History of Washington Hebrew Congregation (Washington, 1905), p. 21.

[35] Federal Writers Project, W.P.A., Washington City and Capital (Washington, D.C., 1937), p. 54.

[36] Decennial Census of 1860, District of Columbia, National Archives.

[37] Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), April 22, 23, May 14, and July 2, 1861.

[38] Constance M. Green, Washington Village and Capital, 1800-1878 (Princeton, 1962), p. 262.

[39] Evening Star, Feb. 6 and May 2, 1862; April 4 and Sept. 14, 1863.

[40] The Chronicle (Washington, D.C.), Aug. 5 and Sept. 7, 1863.

[41] JM, vo. XI, no. 3 (Jan. 24, 1862), p. 28.

[42] Assessment Records Books, Washington, D.C., 1863. Fiscal Records Branch, National Archives.

[43] Dun and Bradstreet, Reports, vol. IV, District of Columbia, Archives of Harvard School of Business Administration, Cambridge, Mass.

[44] Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors and Engravers (New York, 1965), edited by Mantle Fielding, pp. 402 and 525.

[45] JM, vol. XV, no. 17 (May 6, 1864), p. 134.

[46] JM, vol. XI, no. 3 (Jan. 24, 1862), p. 24.

[47] Philps’ Washington Described (Washington, D.C., 1860), edited by William D. Haley, p. 216.

[48] JM, vol. XV, no. 8 (Feb. 26, 1864), p. 59.

[49] JM, vol. XVI, no. 22 (Dec. 9, 1864), p. 173.

[50] JM, vol. XIII, no. 14 (April 3, 1863), p. 117.

[51] House of Representatives, 56th Congress, 2nd Session, Miscellaneous Documents, No. 29. “Contingent Expenses of the House of Representatives,” Jan. 30, 1865.

[52] Adolf Kober, “Jews in the Revolution of 1848 in Germany,” Jewish Social Studies, vol. X, no. 2 (April, 1948), pp. 135-164.

[53] Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution (Philadelphia, 1952), p. 288.

[54] Klaus G. Wust, “German Immigrants and Their Newspapers in the District of Columbia,” Society for the History of Germans in Maryland, Thirtieth Report (1959), p. 49.

[55] Ibid., p. 53.

[56] Dictionary of American Medical Biography, edited by H. A. Kelly (Philadelphia, 1928), p. 599.

[57] Medical Society of the District of Columbia, History, 1817-1909, vol. I (Washington, D.C., 1909), p. 280.

[58] Occ., vol. XXI, no. 7 (Oct., 1863), p. 316.

[59] C.M. Green, op. cit., p. 261.

[60] JM, vol. IX, no. 21 (May 26, 1861), p. 165.

[61] JM, vol. IX, no. 22 (June 7, 1861), p. 172.

[62] JM, vol. XIII, no. 25 (June 26, 1863), p. 211.

[63] American Jewish Historical Quarterly, vol. LII, no. 3 (March, 1963), p. 230.

[64] Letter to author, July 23, 1959, deposited in B’nai B’rith Archives.

[65] JM, vol. XV, no. 8 (Feb. 26, 1864), p. 59.

[66] JM, vol. XV, no. 17 (May 6, 1864), p. 134.

[67] Robert T. Lincoln Collection, No. 38395, Library of Congress.

[68] Bertram W. Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War (Cleveland, 1961), p. 99.

[69] National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Laws and Regulations (Washington, D.C., 1892), pp. 5-12.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Medical Society of the District of Columbia, History, p. 296.

[72] Communication based on family records and history, from Bernard I. Nordlinger, descendant.

[73] Ibid.

[74] National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), April 19-20, 1865.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Evening Star, April 20, 1865.